Upper Endoscopy test allows a physician to view the esophagus, stomach and duodenum. Upper Endoscopy is also referred to as esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) or panendoscopy. Patients suffering from persistent upper abdominal pain, vomiting, nausea or difficulty in swallowing may need to undergo upper endoscopy to identify the cause. Upper endoscopy can also be used for collecting biopsy sample. Polyps can be removed and possible causes for upper GI bleeding can be located.
Upper Endoscopy aids in diagnosing peptic ulcer disease. Upper endoscopy is invaluable in detecting H. pylori infection. A patient scheduled for upper endoscopy must come on a empty stomach. The patient is asked to lie on his left side. A small bite block is inserted into the mouth. The endoscope is passed through the mouth into the esophagus, stomach and duodenum. A numbing solution is sprayed on the throat and sedative and pain alleviating medicine is also given to the patient. Images of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum can be seen by the physician on a monitor. Air is blown into the stomach to aid examination. Patients on medications for hypertension, heart condition or thyroid problems must keep the physician informed.
Cholecystitis refers to severe abdominal pain associated with gallbladder inflammation or gallstones. Acute Cholecystitis can manifest as sharp cramping pain in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. This pain can spread to the back or below the right shoulder blade. It usually appears after a fatty meal. Cholecystitis might also lead to nausea and vomiting and often jaundice. The person suffering Cholecystitis might notice clay colored stools and fever. Diagnostic tests that are prescribed to detect this condition are Liver function test, abdominal ultrasound and Endoscopy.
In many cases, Cholecystitis can clear on its own, with the right low fat diet and antibiotics. But in other cases, Cholecystectomy may be done to remove the gallbladder. Acute Cholecystitis needs to be treated urgently lest it lead to complications such as a perforated gallbladder or gangrenous Cholecystitis where the gallbladder tissue dies. On the other hand, cholangitis involves infection of the bile ducts either due to biliary obstruction or bacterial infection.
Oncologist is a doctor who deals with treating and managing cancer. While some oncologists specialize in a specific type of cancer, others deal with diagnosing and treating various kinds of cancer. An oncologist has to identify possible symptoms of cancer and conduct tests that might help diagnose effectively. Often a combination of treatments are suggested to combat cancer. Diagnostic methods that are often used are biopsy, endoscopy, MRI or CT scan and blood tests. Tumor markers help identify specific types of cancer.